MPI Central

***Disclaimer***

The MAT Assist Tool should only be used after a conceptual framework has been built with solid justification or during national consultations.

Before exploring the MPI Central tab, please refer to training modules available on the multi dimensional poverty portal. These modules will provide you with more extensive information on the rationale of the MPI as well as a detailed technical guide on calculating the MPI. Member states may consider the following participatory approach.

Build National MPI in MAT

Building a National MPI: The 8 Steps of the MPI Central Tab

Find the MPI Central tab to begin:

Click MPI Central Tab

Step 1 Select survey

Choose country and select the year

You can select from the predefined frameworks on the right hand side, or continue with a new one by clicking Build new framework.

Only years with available surveys for the selected country will appear.

Select Survey

If you make any changes in the Indicators tab, make sure you click fetch next to the indicator to reduce the overall computational time in the MPI Central tab.

Step 2 Define the dimensions and group indicators

The screen will have boxes for the dimensions to be defined and a list of predefined indicators to select from.

Define the dimensions and group indicators
Click on the blue box to name your first dimension.

We will start with the Health dimension under the 2020 Revised Arab MPI framework.

name your first dimension

You can rename your dimension at any time on this screen.

rename your first dimension

All available indicators are shown in the box on the right.

If you hover over an indicator you can access the default definition of that indicator.

Default definition

Drag and drop indicators to group them under the relevant dimension.

ClickDefault definitionat the top of the dimensions box to add a new dimension.

We will add the dimensions under the 2020 Revised Arab MPI.

For the Health dimension, simply drag and drop the relevant indicators: child mortality, child nutrition and early pregnancy.

Default definition

To deselect an indicator, simply drag it out of the dimension box/group, back into the indicator box.

You can click the delete button to erase all indicators in that dimension.

For the second dimension, add a new dimension and call it Education. Again, drag and drop the relevant indicators: school attendance, age schooling gap and educational attainment.

Default definition

For the Housing dimension, select and group several relevant indicators including overcrowding and type of dwelling (roof and floor).

Default definition

For the Services dimension, select and group several relevant indicators including improved drinking water, improved sanitation and electricity.

Default definition

For the Assets dimension, select and group several relevant indicators including communications assets, mobility assets and livelihood assets.

Default definition

After grouping indicators by dimension, you will have the option to set the deprivation cut-off points for each indicator.

When you are ready to set the cut offs Click

Step 3: Deprivation cut-offs

A grey box in the indicator definition allows you to change the cut-offs for each indicator.

For example, for the education dimension, the cut-off point for the educational attainment indicator is changeable.

Next to the indicator name you will find the results for each indicator: the red shows total deprived and the green shows total non-deprived.

If you change the cut-off point, click the refresh button to refresh the results for total deprived and total non-deprived.

When satisfied with the deprivation cut-off points, click to set the weights for the indicators and dimensions

Step 4: Set the weights for the indicators within each dimension

In this step, you will be prompted to specify the weights by indicator and by dimension.

→The total percentage of all dimensions must equal 100.

→The overall percentage of indicators within each dimension must equal 100.

By default, the various dimensions and the various indicators within each dimension are given equal weights.

  1. For the dimensions, weights can be changed by sliding the red bar or by inputting the fraction below in the blue box on the left.
  2. For the indicators, weights can be changed by sliding the red bar or by inputting the fraction below on the right.

    The slider accepts weights with two decimal point. For more accurate positioning, you can click on the slider and use the right and left arrows of the keyboard to move it up or down. You may also insert fractions or exact numbers in a box next to the slider.

  3. The validation of the overall weights on dimensions will show on the bottom left.
  4. The weights for indicators will show on the right side near each grouping of indicators.

    To help you make sure the weights add up to 100, the total weights within each dimension is displayed at the top of the blue dimension box. When the weights total 100 per cent, the number '100%' is shown in green and you are ready to move on to the next dimension. If the weights do not total 100 per cent, the figure will be shown in red and a change will need to be made to bring them in line.

  5. Weights can be reset at any time. To do so, click

Click to proceed to step 5!

Step 5: Framework Summary

A table is shown providing a comprehensive summary of the chosen framework including the dimensions, indicators, weights, cut-offs, headcount ratio and definitions for each indicator.

The adjusted cut-offs are reflected in the indicator definitions.

Clickto submit the MPI for live calculation.

Please give this step some time. At this stage MAT is accessing the raw household survey data and applying all the cut-off rules to calculate a binary record of deprivation and non-deprivation for 60,000-150,000 individual records depending on the country. MAT then generates the overall deprivation scores using the weights specified per indicator and per dimension. Once the calculation is complete, MAT will provide the distribution of deprivations.

Step 6: Set the poverty cut-off

Upon submitting, a similar graph will appear showing the deprivation distribution in the country you selected.

The first box on the left hand-side shows the total number of individuals in the survey excluding those with missing values.

There are three lines presented on this graph:

  1. Vulnerability Cut-off (Green line)
  2. Poverty Cut-off (Yellow line)
  3. Extreme poverty Cut-off (Red line)

The yellow line determines the output for the results page, the red and green lines provide additional information on destitution and extreme poverty. (Users will be able to access the additional two result pages for destitution and extreme poverty in Version 2 (V2) of MAT).

By sliding the yellow line, you will see the headcount change in the yellow middle box. This reflects the number of people with a deprivation score greater than the cut-off specified. The farther right the yellow line (closer to the red line), the higher the deprivation score but the lower the poverty headcount. Similarly, the farther left the yellow line (closer to the green line), the lower the deprivation score but the higher the poverty headcount.

Similarly, the red line reflects the extreme poverty cut-off and headcount (in the red box). As for the vulnerability headcount, based on the green line, it reflects the number of persons below the green line and above the yellow poverty line (in the green box). These individuals are vulnerable to falling below the poverty line if they become deprived in at least one additional indicator.

The order of the 3 lines has an analytical significance, MAT will prompt an error if the three lines are not in the correct order.

Finally, the real distribution of deprivations can be revealed by switching-on the 'show histogram' on the top right corner.

Hovering over any point in the graph will give you the number of individuals with that deprivation score (not a cumulative headcount).

According to your selected cut-offs, the rest of the results can be calculated.

Click Computing the results will take around one minute.

Step 7: Specify the outputs

General output

The results screen shows a list of available outputs (tables, graphs, etc.) summarizing the MPI, the headcount ratio and the average intensity of deprivation.

The results page also shows the relative contribution of the different dimensions to the MPI

Output by socio-demographic variables

The MPI framework can be broken down by socio-demographic properties. For example, you may break down the MPI by rural/urban.

In this case, the disaggregated evidence can be analysed to show the contribution of various indicators and dimensions to poverty in rural and urban areas, separately. This provides important information for policymakers and policy analysis.

Step 8: Save/Print

The results of a framework can be saved or printed.

Click "Save" to keep the entire framework for use in later comparisons. You will be prompted to name your saved framework.

Once saved, you will be redirected to step 1 where you can see the list of saved frameowrks. You can click "Load" to view your framework, or you can click "Load and Edit" to introduce changes and save it under another name.

Please note, any saved framework will be storing an image of all indicators as defined at the time of saving.

Click "print" to print the entire results page or save it as a PDF.

If you have any questions related to MAT, you can send an email to askmat@unescwa.org.

NOTE: Before exploring the MPI Central tab, please refer to training modules I, II, III and IV which you will find in the gateway under the Trainings on Poverty and Inequality box. These modules will provide you with more extensive information on the rationale of the MPI as well as a detailed technical guide on calculating the MPI.

Indicator Builder

Getting started

Find the Indicators tab to begin:

This tab is a space dedicated for technical persons that are familiar with the data and are ready to build the relevant poverty indicators, in the MAT. The built indicators herein will be accessible to be used in the MPI Central tab.

Select Survey

Select the country and year from the Select Survey drop-down menu:

The screen will be empty if the survey is newly uploaded, or it will show a list of pre-set indicators and their definitions built by other users, validated by ESCWA experts and made public to users. Most pre-set indicators follow either the "Revised Arab MPI Framework" or the "National MPI Framework", when available. The definitions include the rules and variables used to construct the indicator.

Revised Arab MPI Framework

All indicator examples given in this manual are based on the Revised Arab MPI.

Single Rule Indicators

Single Rule indicators are the simplest form of building an indicator where only one single variable is used to define the deprivation versus the non -deprivation

To illustrate this, let us take the Electricity indicator as an example:

Electricity Indicator

To begin, click on

Name your indicator in the Title box and write the definition for your indicator in the Definition box. After naming and defining general information on the indicator, find the Rules tab to continue:

Click on

In this example the variable called electricity can be found in the HH file as such:

Select the source file: HH (Household)

Select the variable: From the drop-down list, select the electricity variable:

Identify the variables of interest: In this example the variable is called "electricity".

  • The variable option will have a drop-down list including a search bar. You may search by variable name or any word in its label/code.
  • Next to the variable name a percentage appears between brackets: this is the per cent of data points present for each variable.
  • At this point MAT will create a deprivation variable for this indicator where all HH who do not have electricity will be deprived with a value of 1, and the others will be non-deprived with a value of zero, unless they have a missing value which will be kept as missing in the created variable.

Skip user defined value: Only click on user defined value if you would like the user to set a placeholder and have the option to change the deprivation cut-off in the MPI central tab. However, for this simple example, we have opted not to do so.

Select the value: Choose No. This will assume that if the household has electricity then the HH is not deprived.

Click

Click

If you click close without saving, the indicator will not be saved.

Composite Indicators

The next two examples will cover composite indicators in which the user can choose an 'AND' / 'OR' option. An indicator can be based on one or more rules, and each rule can include one or more conditions.

The logic here is to follow the definition and include all elements contained in it. Some definitions include an 'or' option, and some definitions include an 'and' option.

Using the AND operator: HH is considered deprived if HH is deprived in both var(1) and var(2).

Using the OR operator: HH is considered deprived if HH is deprived in either var(1) or var(2).

If you want to add an AND operator to your variable click on the green plus (+) sign to the right of the indicator allows you to add an 'and' operator/condition.

If you want to add an OR operator to your variable click on on the left.

Mobility Assets Indicator (AND operator)

Click on

Name your indicator in the Title box and write the definition for your indicator in the Definition box. After naming and defining general information on the indicator, find the Rules tab to continue:

Let us look at the Mobility Assets indicator and its definition:

The household has no car/truck, motorbike or bicycle.

In order to take into account that the household can have either of the options, we must input all available options from within the definition: car/truck, motorbike and bicycle.

Click on

Select the source: HH (Household)

Select the variable: From the drop-down list, find and select the options from within the definition. To begin select Car/truck:

Select the value: Choose no. This will assume that if the household has a car/truck then the HH is not deprived.

Click

You will notice that this step allows you to add an 'and' operator as part of the definition for the same indicator.

The logic here is to follow the definition and include all elements contained in it. Some definitions include an 'or' option, and some definitions include an 'and' option.

Since the definition states that the HH is deprived if no HH member has a car/truck or motorbike (in other words, no HH member has a car/truck and no HH member has a motorbike), you will need to add the motorbike option from the drop-down list of variables.

Click on the green plus (+) sign to the right of the indicator will allow you to add an 'and' option.

Click

Since the definition states that the HH is not deprived if any HH member has a car/truck, motorcycle/scooter or bicycle , follow the same steps for the additional variables: in this case repeat the steps for motorbike/scooter and bicycle. Select the source, select the variable and select the deprivation value. The final results will show as follow:

Now, you can see that all options are included as stated in the definition.

Once satisfied with your indicator, click

Click

Once you click fetch, the results will show as follow:

Click on the fetch button to see results and reduce computation time

Improved Sanitation Indicator (Categorical/OR Operator)

Click on

Name your indicator in the Title box and write the definition for your indicator in the Definition box. After naming and defining general information on the indicator, find the Rules tab to continue:

Let us look at the Improved Sanitation indicator and its definition

"Deprived if the household does not have access to improved sanitation or it is improved but shared with other households"

Since this is not quantifiable and you cannot set a placeholder for it, you will instead set rules on the type of sanitation available for a household in order for it to be considered deprived.

Click on

Select the source: HH (Household)

Select the variable: From the drop-down list, select the variable for the Type of toilet:

Since this is qualitative and categorical, skip the operator and user-defined value option.

Select the value: The drop down list will present options related to sanitation that would indicate deprivation of a HH.

Note: You may select multiple options from the drop down list:

Click

Let us look at the definition again:

"Deprived if the household does not have access to improved sanitation OR it is improved but shared with other households"

Click on to produce the OR operator

Select the source: HH

Select the variable:From the drop-down list, select the variable for Shared Toilet

skip the user defined value and operator

Select the value: Yes

Click

Click

The results page should appear as follows:

Quantitative Rules

Some variables that you will use to build indicators are not categorical. Such numeric variables will not present any labels. In such a case, you will need to set a numeric cut-off, as illustrated in the examples below.

Overcrowding Indicator (Quantitative Rule)

Click

Name your indicator in the Title box and write the definition for your indicator in the Definition box. After naming and defining general information on the indicator, find the Rules tab to continue:

Let us look at the overcrowding indicator and its definition:

HH is deprived if the HH has 3 persons or more, aged 10+ years per sleeping room.

Find and click the Rules tab for the indicator.

Click on

Select the source: HH (Household)

Select the variable: From the drop-down list, choose Crowding

Select the operator: Following the definition, we want to set deprivation starting at 3 persons or more. As such, set the operator to match the definition as greater than or equal to.

Select the value: In the value field, type "3", or use the arrows that appear when hovering over the field.

Click on

Click on to save the indicator.

Placeholders

Placeholders allow the user to change the cut-off point of an Indicator in the MPI Central tab.

Placeholders are set within the definition; you can choose what number a user can change in the MPI Central tab. We call this setting a placeholder. You will need to include it in the indicator display box once the rules have been set.

In the previous example you created the Overcrowding Indicator, you will now continue editing that same indicator by adding a user defined value to it.

Overcrowding Indicator, continued (Quantitative Placeholder)

Find your Overcrowding Indicator in the list of indicators and click the edit button

Click the edit button

From the definition, we can understand that a HH that has 3 persons or more aged 10+ years sleeping in the same room is considered deprived.

In this example, the user can change the the number of people in a HH sleeping in the same room to adjust the deprivation cut-off. This will change the deprivation score accordingly. Let's try this out!

Find the Rules tab

Click the edit button

Click/switch on the user defined value. This feature will allow the MPI central to have users change the cut-off of an indicator.

Select the default value: Set the default value at 3 since the definition states 3 persons or more

Select the placeholder: Since this the first and only placeholder you are setting for this indicator then please choose {1}

Placeholder {1} should be added in the indicator display instead of the number '3'. To do so, select the general info tab and scroll down to the Indicator Display. Make sure to include the placeholder in its correct location for it to be reflected in the MPI central tab.

Please differentiate between the definition box and the indicator display box.

Click on

Click

If you click close without saving, no changes will be saved.

Defining Deprivation at the Individual Level (ALL/ANY)

Unlike the HH variables shown in the examples above, individual indicators need additional specification for whether the deprivation rule should apply to ALL HH members or ANY one member of the HH. The ALL/ANY options do not apply in HH variables such as those in the previous examples

In every indicator general info tab you will find: Any one person in the household / All persons in the household

Let us take an example:

Assuming a Household (HH) has 4 children and you are using the School Attendance indicator:

HH is deprived if any of the four children in the household have not attended school.

You can define the indicator in multiple ways. Please choose the appropriate option based on your preffered definition:

→ The HH is deprived if ANY one of the 4 children have not attended school

or

→ The HH is deprived if ALL 4 children have not attended school

The back end of MAT will take your ALL/ANY specification to expand the deprivation status at the HH level. The table below shows the different output scenarios.

Case 1 is a HH unit including three individuals, one that is not deprived (ND), one that is deprived (D) and the other undisclosed. If the definition states that:

HH is deprived if ANY one of the three members is deprived

→ then the HH will be considered deprived since there is one HH member that is deprived

HH is deprived if ALL three members are deprived

→ then the HH is not deprived since there is only one HH member that is deprived and not ALL

Early Pregnancy Indicator (ANY - Placeholder/AND operator)

Click on

Name your indicator in the Title box and write the definition for your indicator in the Definition box. After naming and defining general information on the indicator, find the Rules tab to continue:

Let us look at the Early Pregnancy indicator and its definition:

HH is deprived if any woman aged 15-24 in the household gave birth before the age of 18

From the definition, we can understand that the HH is deprived if ANY woman aged 15-24 gave birth before the age of 18. As such, select the Any option since it matches the definition

Click on

Select the source: WN (Women surveys)

Select the variable: Ever given birth

Skip the operator and user defined value

Select value: yes

Then click

Click the green plus (+) sign to the right of the indicator to add an ' 'AND' option:

The definition states that any woman aged 15-24 who gave birth before the age of 18 is considered deprived.

Pay attention to the data structure you are using. In this specific survey, the women file module interviews only women aged between 15-49. In this case, MAT will treat all other individuals beyond this group (outside the women file) as non-deprived by default. Since MAT is only accessing the women file at this stage, it will not detect any individuals below the age of 15. For example, if you specify an age bracket of 13-24, MAT will only consider a 15-24 age bracket.

Therefore, it is advisable NOT to set a placeholder for 15 since there are no data points below this age. NOT

If not considered, this will give a false impression that the indicator is capturing age brackets beyond the available data.

Select Source: Women

Variable: Age of woman

Click/switch on User Defined Value in order to set a placeholder:

Select Operator: Select less than or equal to

Select Default Value: 24 (15-24)

Set a placeholder: Since this is the first placeholder choose {1}

Click

Next, following the definition:

Any woman aged 15-24 gave birth before the age of 18

Similarly to the placeholder for the upper age bound, you can add a placeholder for age at first birth

Click on the green plus (+) sign to the right of the indicator to add an 'and' option

Select Source: Women

Select Variable: Age at first birth

Select Operator: Select less than since the definition states before the age of 18

Click/switch on User Defined Value in order set a placeholder:

Select Default Value: 18

Set a placeholder: Since this is the second placeholder select {2}

Click

Click the General Info tab

Scroll down to the Indicator Display, make sure to include the placeholders you set within the definition so you may later change the cut-off points in the MPI Central tab:

Click

As shown below, setting a placeholder will allow the user to choose the cut-off in the MPI Central tab

Educational Attainment Indicator (ALL - Placeholder/AND operator)

Click On

Name your indicator in the Title box and write the definition for your indicator in the Definition box. After naming and defining general information on the indicator, find the Rules tab to continue:

The definition states that the HH is deprived if ALL members of the HH aged 19+ have not completed secondary education.

As such, select the All option to match the definition:

Next, you want to input the Age variable from the definition:

HH is deprived if ALL household members aged 19+ have not completed secondary education.

Click on

Select the source: Individual

Select the variable: Age

Click/switch on User Defined Value in order to set a placeholder:

Select the operator: Greater than or equal to (+19)

Select value: 19

Set Placeholder: Since this is the first placeholder you have set, please select {1}

Click

The definition states that the HH is deprived if all household members aged 19+ have not completed secondary education . To implement this definition using the Indicator Builder's logic, we will deconstruct it as such: a variable for age (19+) AND a variable for years of schooling completed.

As such, you will want to add the AND operator.

Click on the green plus (+) sign to the right of the indicator to add an 'and' option

Now you will want to add the Years of schooling completed variable to account for secondary education (<12 years for secondary education)

Select Source: Individual

Select Variable: Years of Schooling, completed

Click/switch on User Defined Value in order to place a placeholder

Select Operator: Select less than (<12 years for secondary education)

Select Default Value: 12 (12 years for secondary education)

Set a placeholder: Since this is the second placeholder you have set, select {2}

Click

Find and click the General info tab

Scroll down to the Indicator Display and make sure to include the placeholders you set within the definition in order for it to later be changeable in the MPI Central tab.

Click

Placeholders allow the user to change the cut-off point of an Indicator in the MPI Central tab.

Cloning and Editing Pre-Set Indicators

In some cases, you may need to provide different proxies to the measure by slightly changing or adding to the definition. If you do not want to start from scratch, you may opt to use the cloning feature.

Improved Drinking Water Indicator (OR operator / Placeholder)

Consider the Access to Water indicator definition:

"HH is deprived if the household does not have any of the following sources: piped water into a dwelling, piped water into a yard or it uses bottled water."


In this example, the user may only select categorical variables from the drop down list, and the variables chosen will specify when a HH is considered deprived. However, here the user defined option is not applicable

Although this definition involves categorical variables only, in such examples, you may decide whether to give the user the option to choose a value. In order to do so, you must clone the indicator and consider adding another definition.


Consider an alternative definition where the round trip duration is part of the rule:

"HH is deprived if the drinking water source is not improved OR if the roundtrip to get drinking water is at least 15 minutes"


By adding the duration of the round trip to the definition, you have the option to allow the user to set a placeholder for the duration of the roundtrip through the user defined option.

The logic in this example is that the categorical variables are still the determinants of whether the household is considered deprived or not, however here we are adding another condition saying that the HH is also deprived "if the roundtrip to get drinking water is at least 15 minutes".


To begin please find the Improved Drinking Water indicator from the list of pre-set indicators:


Find and click the clone button to the right handside of the indicator:


A pop-up screen will ask you the following. Click yes!

Scroll down the list of indicators until you find the Cloned Improved Drinking Water indicator:


Find and click the edit button on the right side of the cloned indicator:


The following page will show the pre-set cloned indicator name and definition:

Since you are adding a new rule to the definition, rewrite your title and definition as follows:

Rename the title to: Access to Water (round trip)

Rewrite the definition to: "HH is deprived if drinking water source is not improved or if the roundtrip to get drinking water is at least 15 minutes"

Find and click the Rules tab

The rules tab will show the following:

The WS1 variable is applicable to the old definition, however you must incorporate the new definition. Let us look at the definition again:

"HH is deprived if the drinking water source is not improved OR if the roundtrip to get drinking water is at least 15 minutes."

As such, we need to add the "time to get water" variable, using the OR operator.

Click on to produce the OR operator

Select the source: HH

Select the variable: From the drop-down list, select WS4: Time (in minutes) of roundtrip to get drinking water:

Select the operator: greater than or equal to

Select the value: 15 since the definition is at least 15 min

Click/Switch on User Defined Value since you will set a placeholder for the time in minutes:

Select placeholder: Since it is your first placeholder for this definition, select {1}


Click

Find and click the General Info tab

Scroll down to the Indicator Display and make sure to include the placeholder you set within the definition.

Click

Placeholders allow the user to change the cut-off point of an Indicator in the MPI Central tab.

Glossary

Please refer to the glossary for reference to cross-cutting options

If you have any questions related to MAT, you can send an email to askmat@unescwa.org.

If you have any questions related to MAT, you can send an email to askmat@unescwa.org.